Useful Information, Glossary, & Research
Author’s Notes on Biblical Fiction
In writing the Sisters of Lazarus trilogy and THE CARPENTER AND HIS BRIDE, I did much research in the history and culture of first century Palestine, as well as delving into the Holy Bible.
While this research would not be sufficient to earn a PhD, I was careful in selecting the books, websites, and experts I used as resources. I have a software program that contains over two dozen different translations of the Bible and over three dozen biblical resources. I used Christian and Jewish websites. I used secular archeology websites as well as biblical archeology websites.
On a few of these websites, I found interesting information that I had never heard before, some which had only recently been discovered. One thing I did learn; where there are six expert scholars, there can be seven different interpretations and opinions on the information.
As novels are a work of fiction, ultimately, I chose the research that fits the story.
As some people have asked about different aspects of my novels, I created this page with some of the items from my research.
29 or 30 days
29 or 30 days
29 or 30 days
March – April
April – May
May – June
June – July
July – August
August – September
September – October
October – November
November – December
December – January
January – February
February – March
March – April
Jewish Holy Days
Passover is celebrated on Nissan 15.
Jewish New Year, Rosh Hashanah—known in the Bible as the Day of Remembrance or the Feast of Trmpets—occurs on the 1st and 2nd days of Tishri; the number of the year will increase.
Day of Atonement is celebrated on Tishri 10.
Sukkot, the Feast of Tabernacles—also known as the Feast of Ingathering–is celebrated on Tishri 15.
Alabastron: an elongated, narrow-necked flask carved from alabaster that was used as to hold perfume or unguents
Amphora: An amphora is a two-handled Grecian vase, generally with a swollen belly, narrow neck, and a large mouth. In antiquity, an amphora was often used to transport wine, oil, or other liquids. The plural of amphora is written as both amphoras and amphorae.
Bar/Ben: Hebrew word meaning, ‘son of’ and used to identify a son’s father, used in place of a modern last name
Bat: Hebrew word meaning ‘daughter of’ and used to identify a daughter’s father, used in place of a modern last name
Clean/Unclean: The Code of Holiness, primarily found in Leviticus 17-26, was assigned to people, animals, and even inanimate objects. This special emphasis upon ritual holiness acknowledged Israel’s symbolic status as a people holy and separated to God.
Mezuzah: the box on the doorposts of a house that contained portions of sacred scriptures
Mikvah: a bath used as part of religious ritual cleansing
Sicarii: A splinter group of the Zealots, the Jewish political party with religious underpinnings which did not hesitate to use intrigue, violence, force, and deception in achieving its liberating end. Sicarii meant “daggers,” because they carried knives and used them to assassinate Romans and those who opposed war with Rome.
Terra sigillata ware: bright-red, polished pottery used throughout the Roman Empire from the first century B.C. to the third century A.D.
Veil: The practice of a woman veiling her face except in the presence of male relatives comes from the teaching of the Koran. During Old Testament and New Testament times, the veil was used only in exceptional cases, such as when a woman was in the presence of her betrothed husband.
The Hebrews reckoned the day from evening to evening and divided it into the following six unequal parts: the break of day; the morning, or sunrise; the heat of the day (beginning about nine o’clock); midday; the cool of the day; and the evening. The cool of the day corresponded to our late afternoon, and was so called because in Eastern countries a wind begins to blow a few hours before sundown and continues till evening. It was during this time that much of the day’s business was transacted. See Genesis 3:8 and Judges 19:9.
The first hour = 6 A.M. to 7 A.M.
The second hour = 7 A.M. to 8 A.M.
The third hour = 8 A.M. to 9 A.M.
The fourth hour = 9 A.M. to 10 A.M.
The fifth hour = 10 A.M. to 11 A.M.
The sixth hour = 11 A.M. to 12 P.M.
The seventh hour = 12 P.M. to 1 P.M.
The eighth hour = 1 P.M. to 2 P.M.
The ninth hour = 2 P.M. to 3 P.M.
The tenth hour = 3 P.M. to 4 P.M.
The eleventh hour = 4 P.M. to 5 P.M.
The twelfth hour = 5 P.M. to 6 P.M.
Watches of night
The Jews—like the Greeks and Romans—divided the night into military watches instead of hours, each watch representing the period for which sentinels or pickets remained on duty. The proper Jewish reckoning recognized only three such watches, entitled the first or “beginning of the watches,” (Lamentations 2:19) the middle watch, (Judges 7:19) and the morning watch. (Exodus 14:24 ;1 Samuel 11:11) These would last respectively from sunset to 10 P.M.; from 10 P.M. to 2 A.M.; and from 2 A.M. to sunrise. After the establishment of the Roman supremacy, the number of watches was increased to four, which were described either according to their numerical order, as in the case of the fourth watch, (Matthew 14:25) or by the terms “even,” “midnight,” “cock-crowing” and “morning.” (Mark 13:35) These terminated respectively at 9 P.M., midnight, 3 A.M., and 6 A.M.
Part of the story ideas for GRACE EXTENDED came from a book, The Way Back; How Christians Blew Our Credibility and How We Get it Back, written by Phil Cooke and Jonathan Bock. I highly recommend this book. I have included a snippet below.
“Why did the Early Church succeed where we are failing? How did they transform the Western World in such a relatively short time? They did things that baffled the Romans. The Early Church didn’t picket, they didn’t boycott, and they didn’t gripe about what was going on in their culture. They just did things that astonished the Romans. They took in abandoned babies. They helped the sick and wounded. They restored dignity to the slaves. They were willing to die for what they believed. After a while, their actions so softened the hearts of the Romans that the Romans wanted to know more about who these Christians were and who was the God they represented.
The question is – what could our Christian community do today that would so astonished nonbelievers that they would be forced to reexamine what we believe and why we believe it?”
“Real vs. Hollywood”
Author’s comment: My husband is an Army veteran. When he was stationed at Ft. Bragg, North Carolina, he was part of the 3rd battalion /5th Special Forces Group; for those who don’t know military lingo, that means he was a Green Beret.
His military experience still has benefits for me. Whenever we are watching a movie or television show, if there are espionage or military scenes, I will often ask him, “Is it real or Hollywood?” Real are the scenes where the filmmakers did their homework and used tactics, weapons, ordnance, combat, etc. that was real or could really happen. Hollywood means the filmmakers threw in things that could/would never happen in real life/combat; such as shooting a car with a pistol resulting in the gas tank exploding with the force of a bomb.
The following are some of the things I researched for my biblical novels. Those based upon research are noted as Real. The items added for creative license are noted as Hollywood.
Real or Hollywood, throughout all my biblical novels, my intention was to remain historical, culturally, and biblically respectful.
Historically, this costly gift was given to a Jewish girl by her parents for her dowry. On her wedding night, after their marriage was consummated, the bride would pour the perfume over her husband’s feet, as a sign of submission and love. In “BEAUTY UNVEILED; Sisters of Lazarus, Book One,” Mary giving part of her own dowry [pouring the spikenard on the feet of Jesus] was a statement of complete love, devotion, submission, and obedience.
Angels: Somewhat real
Ask someone to describe an angel and most will answer a tall, slender, feminine being with soft features, flowing garments, and fluttery wings.
I get it. Growing up, my first visual introduction to angels was Hans Zatzka’s painting, “The Guardian Angel.” This beautiful picture of the female angel watching the two children as they crossed a bridge presented a comforting reminder of God protection and care.
However peaceful this painting was, it doesn’t reflect the Bible’s description of angels. Hebrews 13:2 states that at times angels appear as humans and we wouldn’t even recognize their true identity. In Ezekiel 1, the prophet describes angels through a series of images, including wheels covered in eyes. In Scripture, most angels are described as male. The one biblical instance of angels being described as female is in Zechariah 5:9, where the prophet wrote, “Then I looked up—and there before me were two women, with the wind in their wings! They had wings like those of a stork, and they lifted up the basket between heaven and earth.”
Whenever angels appeared to people—who were not dreaming or having a vision—the Bible generally describes the people’s reaction as being terrified, or like the Roman soldiers at the tomb of Jesus, fainting as though dead. In the situations where the angel had a message for the person or persons, it was usually predicated with, “Do not be afraid.”
For the instances of angelic appearances in THE CARPENTER AND HIS BRIDE—both in person to Mary and to Joseph in his dreams—I wanted strong, fearsome beings. For that, I turned to the work of sculptor, Tracy Sugg.
I have seen several angels Tracy has sculpted, including the “Angel with the Last Trumpet,” as seen in the picture. Tracy’s angels are powerful, formidable beings, intent and focused on the calling God has placed on them. These angels would most certainly follow their greeting to people with, “Do not be afraid.” To see this sculpture and more of Tracy’s work, visit her website; https://www.tracyhsugg.com/
Betrothal and marriage: Mostly Real
The betrothal and marriage traditions described in the novels are Real, with the possible exception of the ring. In the Bible, Jesus told the parable of woman who lost a coin. Some scholars state this was the betrothal gift given by the groom to his perspective bride. Other scholars state that some grooms gave their brides a ring and the coins were part of the mohar or bridal gift; the money he gave to the bride’s father. This money would be kept in reserve and given to the woman should she become a widow.
Butterflies in Israel: real
The butterflies described in THE CARPENTER AND HIS BRIDE are found in Israel. I chose the Plebejus Pylaon Nichollae – shown in the picture – because its delicate silver and blue wings reminded me of the color of the prayer shawls the Jewish men wore.
A number of years ago, on a trip my husband and I took to central Texas, we had the unexpected pleasure of being surrounded by a kaleidoscope – the name for a group of butterflies – of butterflies. Standing there, feeling their delicate wings brush against my skin and hair, was magical.
When thinking about this book, I decided to include butterflies. I found a YouTube video of the multitude of monarch butterflies in Mexico waking up and flying. The sound of millions of butterflies flying sounded like a waterfall.
Camels: Mostly real.
Despite the creches in homes and churches, or in various Christmas movies, there is nothing in scripture to suggest how Mary traveled to Zechariah and Elizabeth’s home, or how Mary and Joseph traveled to Egypt. Archeologists explain that walking was a major means of travel, but they also state people of that time also used wagons, donkeys, and camels. I chose to use a camel in THE CARPENTER AND HIS BRIDE,
Chronology of the biblical events: Mostly real.
It is not uncommon to come across debates about the order of events listed in the Bible, especially the four Gospels. According to some biblical scholars, the people of that time period did not put as much emphasis on chronology as they did on content. I attempted to stay within the proper time frame for the first two books in the Sisters of Lazarus series; the chapters in those books are dated accordingly. The third book, GRACE EXTENDED, is based upon The Acts of the Apostles which, according to scholars, took place over a span of about 50-60 years. As the stories of the main characters were mostly fictional, I chose to scrunch the events I used from the Bible into a shorter time period.
Chronology and Significance of the Jewish Feasts to the Birth story: Mostly real
Most biblical scholars do not believe Jesus was born on 20 Tevet, the Jewish date for December 25. In researching THE CARPENTER AND HIS BRIDE, I used information from the research of Rick Larson and his documentary, The Star of Bethlehem. As explained in the documentary, Larson spent years researching what the Star of Bethlehem might have been, and the result was compelling. One part of his research suggests The Annunciation took on Rosh Hashanah – or as it is known in the Old Testament – the Feast of Trumpets. His research also suggested the Visit of the Magi took place on 20 Tevet. I chose to use this research to date my novel.
The significance of the Jewish Festival of Trumpets and the Day of Atonement as mentioned in THE CARPENTER AND HIS BRIDE: Real. I found the significance of these High Holy Days on several websites, including several Jewish websites.
According to the Mayo Clinic, “Clubfoot describes a range of foot abnormalities usually present at birth (congenital) in which your baby’s foot is twisted out of shape or position. In clubfoot, the tissues connecting the muscles to the bone (tendons) are shorter than usual. Clubfoot is a fairly common birth defect and is usually an isolated problem for an otherwise healthy newborn.”
In THE CARPENTER AND HIS BRIDE, I chose for Adina to have clubfeet as an homage to our youngest grandchild, Josephine. In 2020, Josie was born with Antley Bixler Syndrome, an ultra-rare genetic disorder. ABS affects the skeletal system, causing deformities. Among Josie’s many challenges, she was born with severe clubfeet. She has undergone various non-surgical treatments to correct them, but to no avail. However, through the help of excellent physical therapists, she is learning to walk.
In researching the treatment of clubfeet in antiquity, I learned that in 400 BC Hippocrates recommended to, ‘manipulate the foot as if holding a wax model, not by force, but gently.’
Coins in the New Testament: Real
In New Testament times, the main coins in circulation in Palestine came from three different sources; Roman, Antioch, and Tyre. Coins made from silver, bronze, or brass were the most common; gold coins were rare.
The most common silver coin was the Roman denarius, also known as a ‘penny.’ This is what the common laborer earned each day.
The copper coin called an as was worth one-sixteenth of a denarius. It is mentioned in Matthew 10:29 and Luke 12:6, and has sometimes been translated as a ‘farthing’ or a ‘penny.’
The quadran was worth one sixty-fourth of a denarius. This was the coin Jesus referenced in Matthew 5:26.
The Greek ‘lepton’ was worth half of a quadran. Two of these coins were what was called the ‘widow’s mite’ in Mark 12:42
Dating the Emperor’s Register for the Census: Real
I found several biblical scholars who explained when the Roman Emperor wanted to levy a tax, there would need to be a census of the people in order to know what each person should pay in taxes. This wasn’t something done over a short period of time; the census would often take place a year or so before the actual tax was paid, similar to the Untied States census happening once every ten years. According to these scholars, people went to the city of their family to ‘register for the census.’
Differences Between the Birth Stories in Matthew and Luke: Real
I found information from several biblical scholars on the differences between the two birth stories, including one from ChristianThinkTank.com. Their article, “Contradictions in the Infancy Story,” (February, 2008) presented ideas that answered questions on these differences.
Distances between cities: Real
I found several websites that mentioned the distances between cities, the path people would have taken, and how long it would take to travel, whether by walking or on horseback.
Divorce: Mostly real
I found several experts who spoke on the biblical and cultural aspects of divorce. The following is from the Cultural Background Bible [Zondervan, 2016] pg. 1609, the Matthew birth narrative on Joseph divorcing Mary quietly.
“More binding than modern Western engagements, betrothal could be ended only by divorce or by the death of one of the partners. Sexual unfaithfulness was grounds for divorce throughout the ancient world, both law and custom in fact required a man to divorce an unfaithful wife or fiancée. (Romans did not allow subject peoples to execute convicted persons without Roman permission in this period; although some lynchings may have occurred in secret, they were rare, so Mary likely faced divorce rather than death [Lev 20:10]. A Jewish man who divorced a faithful wife had to refund the money she brought into the marriage. In the case of an unfaithful wife, however, the husband could keep this money, plus he was entitled to a refund of any money he may have paid the father as a bride price. Joseph might thus have profited financially by divorcing Mary in front of the elders, in a court setting. Instead, sensitive to her shame, he prefers a private divorce. A private divorce meant giving her a certificate of divorce, which would specify her freedom to marry someone else, in front of two or three witnesses.
Donkeys: Mostly Real
A writer-friend, Susan Stewart, wrote the devotional book, Donkey Devos, in which she shares her knowledge of donkeys from the unique perspective of adopting and raising rescue donkeys. There is also a couple at my church, Mel and Erica McKee, who have a donkey, Guinevere, on their farm. These people have been helpful answering any of my donkey-related questions. I also found several websites on donkeys during biblical times. Guinevere—pictured here—was the model for Aton in THE CARPENTER AND HIS BRIDE.
Elizabeth and Zechariah’s home: Real
The Bible does not tell us where Elizabeth and Zechariah lived; however, several biblical scholars and Church tradition believe they came from the town of Ein Kerem which is located in the hill country for Judah.
Friend of Caesar, Pilate, and Sejanus: Real
After the reign of Caesar Augustus, Roman senators, legates, and prefects who had shown loyal service were given the rank and title of “friend” of the Emperor. These friends received the prestigious symbol of imperial favor in the form of a golden ring.
By the time Tiberius Caesar reached his later years, he had wearied of daily imperial duties. In 26 A.D., he entered semi-retirement on the Island of Capri, where he lived a life of unmentionable depravity and cruelty.
Tiberius left Lucius Aelius Sejanus—who had been Captain of the Pretorian Guard—as his regent. Although Sejanus had been considered loyal to the Emperor, during the five years of his regency, he used banishment, imprisonment, coerced suicide, and murder to pave a path to the throne.
A close friend of Sejanus was Pontius Pilate, who held the official title as Friend of Caesar. Sejanus hated the Jews; during Pilate’s early years of governing Palestine, he copied ’s Sejanus’ anti-Semitism. Pilate set up an idol in the Holy of Holies. He seized the offerings made to the Temple to pay for Roman work projects. He also killed Jewish worshippers and mingled their blood with the religious sacrifices.
Back in Rome, Sejanus might have succeeded in overthrowing the Emperor, had it not been for Tiberius’ trusted sister-in-law, Antonia. She reported Sejanus’ actions to the Emperor. On October 18, 31 A.D., Sejanus was condemned and executed. Tiberius threw out Sejanus’ orders and policies, including the anti-Semitic ones. The Emperor sent out a new mandate, “Let the Jews alone.”
Two years later, the High Priest and Temple leaders brought Jesus to Pilate and demanded that He be killed. After questioning Him, Pilate announced that he could find no reason for Jesus’ execution and wanted to release Him. The Jewish leaders shouted, “If you let this man go, you are no friend of Caesar.” (John 19:12) Pilate would have clearly understood their underlying threat of sending a report to Tiberius.
Gamaliel ben Simon: Real
The rabbi mentioned in Acts is known as Gamaliel ha-zaqen, “Gamaliel the Elder.” Because of his comments during the trial of Peter and John before the Sanhedrin, it has been suggested that he became a Christian. However, there is nothing to substantiate that this happened. I added his questioning Nicodemus and Michael about Jesus to suggest what I believe any true scholar would wish to know.
Game of the Kings: Real
In first century, the Roman Army was stationed around the known world. While Palestine was a volatile area, it was boring for battle-hardened soldiers. To pass the time, they often gambled, using dice made from sheep’s knuckles. Archeologists have found the markings scratched into the floor of the Antonia Fortress for a dice game known as “The Game of the King.”
In this game, whoever won the first round would select one of their own—generally a new recruit—and declare him, “king.” As the game progressed, they would give the king a robe, a crown, a scepter, and would pay homage to him. Then the game took a sinister turn; with each round, the soldiers would gamble for the king’s possessions including his clothes, his horse, his wife, his home back in Rome. Whoever won the final round got the privilege of killing the king.
Word of this game got back to Caesar. He outlawed the use of soldiers as king in this game, stating that he was losing good troops and it hurt morale. Instead of giving up the game, the Emperor suggested soldiers use condemned prisoners.
When the soldiers declared Jesus ‘King of the Jews,” when they dressed Him in a royal robe, crowned Him, gave Him a scepter, and then began beating Him, casting lots for His garments, and ultimately killing Him, they were playing The Game of the King.
Genealogies of Jesus: Real
The genealogies of Jesus mentioned in the two Gospels of Matthew and Luke refer to the family lines of Joseph and Mary. Matthew 1:1-17 lists the lineage of Joseph and Luke 3:23-38 lists the lineage of Mary. Luke didn’t mention Mary in the lineage because he had already identified her as Jesus’ mother in Chapter 1.
The greetings used in the novels were real.
Hebrew words: Real
All the Hebrew words in my biblical novels are real.
High Priest, a political appointment: Real
In the Old Testament, the High Priest was selected by God. That changed when the Romans took over the rule of Palestine; by the first century, the position of the High Priest was a political appointment from Caesar. There was no separation between church and state; the priests at the Temple not only officiated over the religious life of the Jews, they were also rulers and judges. As such, they wielded tremendous authority.
Infanticide in the Ancient World: Real
Sadly, this was quite true. Many ancient cultures, Roman included, saw nothing morally wrong with infanticide or with abandoning their newborns on the dung heaps or garbage dumps of cities. They ‘exposed’ children for being sickly, deformed, or simply the wrong gender.
Jacinth is a precious stone, reddish blue or deep purple in color, named after the flower jacinth or hyacinth. For centuries, flowers, herbs, and plants have been associated with a symbolic language, such as roses symbolizing love. In the language of flowers, the purple hyacinth is associated with sorrow, regret, and forgiveness.
Jesus’ birthday and age when the Magi arrived: Mostly real.
Despite the beautiful creches, most biblical scholars agree the Magi did not arrive the night Jesus was born. I placed the timing of Jesus’ birth and the arrival of the Magi based on Rick Larson’s The Star of Bethlehem documentary.
Jesus, the Tamid, and the Five Levitical Sacrifices: Real
The sacrificial system ordained by God was at the center and heart of Jewish national life. Whatever the Jews may have thought of it at the time, the unceasing sacrifice of animals, and the never-ending glow of fire at the altar of sacrifice, there is no doubt that God was burning an awareness of their own sin into the hearts of every man.
The Pentateuch had many instructions for sacrifices, but Leviticus chapters 1-7 is dedicated to the five Levitical offerings which were the main sacrifices used in the rituals: The burnt offering, the meal offering, the peace offering, the sin offering, and the trespass offering.
Each of the sacrifices were uniquely fulfilled in Jesus Christ.
One that is mentioned in “GLORY REVEALED: Sisters of Lazarus, Book Two” is the Tamid, or the ‘perpetual sacrifice.’
In Exodus 29:38-46, the Law stated that every day, two lambs were to be sacrificed for the Tamid. The sacrifice of a lamb without blemish began the daily sacrifices in the Temple. Throughout the day, other sacrifices—sin, grain, burnt, meal, and peace—would be placed on top of this sacrificial lamb. At the end of the day, a final lamb was sacrificed. These two lambs were the Tamid—or ‘perpetual’ sacrifice—acted as bookends for the day’s sacrifices.
According to Jewish scholars, the morning Tamid sacrifice took place at 9:00 A.M. The evening Tamid sacrifice took place at 3:00 P.M. Jesus was nailed to the cross as the morning Tamid lamb was being sacrificed. He died as the evening Tamid lamb was being sacrificed.
James and John ben Zebedee: Mostly Hollywood
According to some biblical scholars, the “Sons of Thunder” were related to Jesus through his mother. In THE CARPENTER AND HIS BRIDE, chose to include these two as young boys when Jesus was born. Most of their storyline, as well as their parents’ story, was creative license on my part.
John Mark as Peter’s Disciple: Real
Many biblical scholars believe that the Gospel of Mark was comprised of Mark acting as Peter’s scribe and writing down the disciples’ remembrances of Jesus.
Joseph of Arimathea going to Gaul: Real
According to church history, Joseph of Arimathea spread the Gospel to the land of the Gauls.
Judas Iscariot a member of the Sicarii: Possibly real
Some scholars believe that Judas’ last name was taken from the town of Kerioth. Other scholars think he might have been a member of the Zealot splinter sect, ‘Sicarii’ and that the biblical reference to him would have meant Judas ‘the’ Sicarii. I used both in the SISTERS OF LAZARUS series
Lazarus going to Cyprus: Real
According to church history, Lazarus took the Gospel to Cyprus, where he became the first bishop of the church founded there.
Lepers and the Valley of Hinnom: Real
According to the Jewish Law, lepers had to live away from other people. Lepers in Jerusalem were sent to live in Valley of Hinnom.
Channels were built in the city of Jerusalem; residents would dump trash and sewage into them. Rainwater would wash the channels, emptying them into the Valley Hinnom, where the trash and sewage would be burnt by slaves.
Several scholars state that, in biblical times, many skin diseases were considered leprosy.
Leprosy was greatly feared by the Israelites, not only because of the physical damage done as a result of the disease, but also because of the strict isolation laws applying to leprosy. Lepers were considered outcasts of society.
In 1873, a Norwegian researcher, G. Armauer Hansen, discovered a bacillus he called “Myobacterium leprae,” which he found in nearly all cases of leprosy, and abundantly so in severe cases. The more term “Hansen’s disease” is now commonly used instead of leprosy.
Leprosy appears in two principal forms. The first—and far more dangerous—is called “lepromatous”; and the other—and more benign type—is called “tuberculoid.”
Both start with discoloration of a patch of skin; the patch may be white or pink. It is most likely to appear on the brow, nose, ear, cheek or chin, although rare cases begin with a whitish spot elsewhere on the body. The patient feels no pain on these spots, even if it is pierced with needles.
The lepromatous type of leprosy the patch may spread widely in all directions. Portions of the eyebrows may disappear. Spongy, tumorlike swellings grow on the face and body. The disease becomes systemic and involves the internal organs as well as the skin. Marked deformity of hands and feet occur when the tissues between the bones deteriorate and disappear. Often the sensory nerve endings no longer respond to heat or injury and the unwary patient may be subject to further destruction of his body before he realizes his danger.
Leprosy is a long-lasting disease. Untreated cases may be sick with lepromatous leprosy from ten to twenty years, death occurring from the disease itself or from an intercurrent invasion of the weakened body by tuberculosis or some other disease.
Scholars believe that the Hebrews had no cure for leprosy other than divine intervention.
Literacy of Jewish Males: Real
Lyre: Mostly Hollywood
Most Bible references to harps and lyres are in the Old Testament; there are only a handful in the New Testaments. I chose to have Yared play a lyre in THE CARPENTER AND HIS BRIDE. The worship leaders mentioned in the Old Testament often played instruments, as did King David and I wanted to have the worship leader in Nazareth play a lyre. I also wanted to add this instrument because I play the harp. The picture in the sidebar is me playing my Pratt Chamber harp.
Magi’s names: Mostly real
I found websites with references to the Western and Eastern traditions about the Magi’s names. I chose to use a combination of these names for the Magi, to give them a mystical and noble sound.
Magi gifts symbolism: Hollywood and real
Biblical scholars suggest that the gifts of the Magi were more than just an expensive present, but they had symbolic meanings as well.
GOLD: The royal metal. Signifies Jesus’ kingship; hence the gift for a king
FRANKENSENCE: The symbol of prayer. Signifies Jesus as the High Priest/Mediator between God and Man; hence the gift for a priest
MYRRH: The burial ointment. Meaning that Jesus had to die for the salvation of all; hence gift for one who would die.
Mary as an artist: Hollywood
There is nothing in the Bible or biblical research to suggest that Mary was an artist. When I write biblical novels, I try to give characters skills, strengths, weaknesses, likes, dislikes, etc. that a modern reader could understand and think, “That person is similar to me.” Living near Nashville, TN, and having written about the entertainment industry for over twenty years, I have met many creative people. Creative people have unique personalities, and I decided I wanted to include that in the character of Mary.
Morning Sickness: Hollywood and Real
The idea of Mary suffering from extreme morning sickness in THE CARPENTER AND HIS BRIDE, was my idea. My friend, Mary McAnear, suffered extreme morning sickness with all four of her pregnancies. She spent most of her time in bed, and occasionally was hospitalized for the morning sickness. I asked Mary about her memories of that time, and how she dealt with it, to include in the story.
Names: Real and Hollywood
The names mentioned in my biblical novels are a mix of real and made-up. I tried to use genealogies, Church history, and biblical and historical scholars when possible. When the names were not mentioned in scripture, tradition, or scholarly writings, I made them up, with help from the website “Behind the Name.” [behindthename.com].
One comment on what appears to be formality of characters using full names to address each other. The challenge laid with the name “Mary.” There are multiple Marys mentioned throughout the Bible. Some stories had several Marys in one scene. To identify which Mary was speaking, I had other characters call them by their full name. Rather than make it appear odd that only the Marys were addressed formally, I used that technique for other characters as well.
Olives representing Israel in Scripture: real
There are a number of scriptures in the Bible where olives represent Israel, including Jeremiah 11:16-17 and Romans 11:17-24.
Paul/Saul and his Roman citizenship: Real
It is often thought that—like Simon bar Jonah—Saul’s name was changed by the Lord at his conversion. However, there is nothing in the Scripture to support this. His Jewish name was “Saul.” According to the Book of Acts, he inherited Roman citizenship from his father. Some scholars state that, as a Roman citizen, he also bore the Latin name of “Paul,” or “Paulus” which in biblical Greek is “Paulous.” It was common for New Testament Jews to have two names, one Hebrew, the other Latin or Greek.
The formal prayers mentioned in my biblical novels were found on several Jewish websites.
Quotes: Real and Hollywood
Throughout my biblical novels, different characters would quote a relative or reference a common saying. Many of these I found on a website of ancient Jewish sayings. I used the flavor and wordage of the authentic sayings to create a few sayings to fit a character or scene.
The songbirds mentioned in THECARPENTER AND HIS BRIDE are found in Israel.
Stars mentioned in the story: Real
The position of the stars, the names for the mazzaloths (the constellations), and the ancient Jewish thoughts on the stars were taken from different astronomical and biblical websites, the software Stellarium, and Rick Larson’s documentary, “The Star of Bethlehem.”
Synesthesia: Real and Hollywood
Synesthesia is a neurological condition in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway (for example, hearing) leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway (such as vision). Simply put, when one sense is activated, another unrelated sense is activated at the same time. This may, for instance, take the form of hearing music and simultaneously sensing the sound as swirls or patterns of color. I found several different articles on the subject, including one on Psychology Today’s website.
Was Mary a synesthete? That was completely from my own imagination.
For more information on synesthesia, I have included some of my research as well as a note from a synesthete in THE CARPENTER AND HIS BRIDE.
Thirty Pieces of Silver: Real
Exodus 21:32 stated that the compensation for the death of a slave was thirty pieces of silver. That amount was what the average worker earned in four months.
Timing the trips in THE CARPENTER AND HIS BRIDE: Real
I found several biblical scholars who discussed the path taken and the length of time it would have taken for Mary to travel to Ein Kerem, for Mary and Joseph to travel from Nazareth to Bethlehem, and for Mary and Joseph to travel from Bethlehem to Egypt.
The trees mentioned in my biblical novels are common to Israel. I found several websites that discussed the use of the wood from the various trees
Veil: Mostly Real.
The practice of a woman veiling her face except in the presence of male relatives comes from the teaching of the Koran. During Old Testament and New Testament times, the veil was used only in exceptional cases, such as when a woman was in the presence of her betrothed husband. Hollywood: In the SISTERS OF LAZARUS series, I added women wearing veils as a sign of mourning for their husbands.
Walking Staff: Real
The walking staff Adina used in THE CARPENTER AND HIS BRIDE was described on an archeological website.
Wealth of the rich: Real
According to scholars, there were some people in biblical times whose wealth would astound us. In the SISTERS OF LAZARUS series, the description of the High Priest’s home was as historians have described it. The description of Nicodemus’ home being ‘more palace than residence’ was based upon historical descriptions of homes of the wealthy in that time period.
Zechariah presenting the incense in the Temple: Real
The steps in the ritual Zechariah followed while presenting the incense before the altar was found on a biblical scholar’s website.
,Zippori (Sepphoris): Real
Less than four miles from the small village of Nazareth (pop. 200-400) is one of Herod Antipas’s capital cities in the Galilee; Sepphoris, or ‘Zippori,’ meaning bird, as it was located on the edge of a hill.
In 55 BC, eight years after conquered by the Romans, the city was declared as the capital of the Galilee. In 47 BC Herod the Great conquered the city and made it his Galilean capital.
According to biblical and archeological scholars, at one point this city boasted a population of 30,000 and was a center for culture and art in the Galilee, hosting beautiful mosaics and a Roman theatre that give it the reputation as the ornament of the Galilee. It also served as the political and banking capital of the region, housing many of the social elite.
Although scripture does not mention Sepphoris by name, it is likely that Jesus was aware of its existence, as a “city on a hill cannot be hidden” and is very visible from the ridges of Nazareth overlooking the Tiran and Bet Netofa valleys. Proximity to Sepphoris would have provided artisans such as Joseph – and later Jesus – with an opportunity for employment, exposure to a diversity of foreigners from across the Roman world, and the opportunity to learn to speak and read the three languages: Greek, Hebrew and Aramaic.
Through archeological evidence of the systems of cities and transport during Jesus’s life and informed speculation when interfaced with scripture, it is probable that Jesus would have been in contact with the broader world. The region surrounding Nazareth and Capernaum where Jesus spent most of his time included powerful cities such as Sepphoris and Tiberias that were connected to the international transport routes. Many activities and examples used in Jesus’s teaching would not have occurred in a small farming village like Nazareth, but could have been found after a two hour walk down the hill to Sepphoris.